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Bibliography Style Acm Urlm

Computer Science Style Guide Suggestions

Collect a basic set of information for each one of your references, and then format this information to match an accepted Bibliographic Style (ACM, APA or IEEE). On this page you will find a list of the information that is needed, along with several examples.

ACM = Association of Computing Machinery
Sample citation [Phillips 2001] -- List References alphabetically, using the author's last name.

APA = American Psychology Association
Sample citation (Raskin, 2002) -- List References alphabetically, using the author's last name.

IEEE = Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Sample citations [1] or [8, 10] -- List References numerically, in the order that you have cited them.

Once you select a style, keep all of your references in the same style.


How to write a Reference for a


Webpage (html document, URL significant)
Basic information neededSee an example using: ACM | APA | IEEE

Website (with many pages, URL significant)
Basic information neededSee an example using: ACM | APA | IEEE

Wikipedia
There are no examples because this is not a scholarly resource. It is not an appropriate reference for academic papers.

Article in electronic Newsletter or Magazine (html document, URL significant)
Basic information needed See an example using: ACM | APA | IEEE

ACM Digital Library (pdf document, URL not relevant)
Basic information neededSee an example using: ACM | APA | IEEE

IEEE Electronic Library (pdf document, URL not relevant)
Basic information needed See an example using: ACM | APA | IEEE

Journal Article with DOI (Digital Object Identifier)
Basic information needed See an example using: ACM | APA | IEEE

Journal Article (multiple formats online, URL to a directory)
Basic information needed See an example using: ACM | APA | IEEE

Journal Article (multiple formats online, URL to a file)
Basic information needed See an example using: ACM | APA | IEEE

Journal Article (from a print source, no URL)
Basic information needed See an example using: ACM | APA | IEEE

Conference Paper (from Proceedings)
Basic information needed See an example using: ACM | APA | IEEE

Book (by one or more authors)
Basic information needed See an example using: ACM | APA | IEEE

Authored Chapter in a Book (by one or more editors)
Basic information needed See an example using: ACM | APA | IEEE

International Standard (from a print source, no URL)
Basic information needed See an example using: ACM | APA | IEEE

International Standard (html document, URL significant)
Basic information needed See an example using: ACM | APA | IEEE

Technical Report (from a print source, no URL)
Basic information needed See an example using: ACM | APA | IEEE

Technical Report (html document, URL significant)
Basic information needed See an example using: ACM | APA | IEEE


INFORMATION & EXAMPLES



Information needed for a Webpage (html file, URL significant)
Author: Jakob Nielsen
Date: 1994
Title: Heuristics for User Interface Design
Page: Ten Usability Heuristics
URL: http://www.useit.com/papers/heuristic/heuristic_list.html


Example using ACM

NIELSEN, J. 1994. Ten usability heuristics. Heuristics for user interface design.     http://www.useit.com/papers/heuristic/heuristic_list.html.


Example using APA

Nielsen, J. (1994). Ten usability heuristics. Heuristics for user interface design.     Retrieved from http://www.useit.com/papers/heuristic/heuristic_list.html


Example using IEEE

[1]  J. Nielsen, "Ten usability heuristics," 1994, http://www.useit.com/papers/      heuristic/heuristic_list.html.


Information needed for "documents" within a Website (URL significant)
Author: Microsoft Corporation
Date: 2003
Title: Site Management Cycle
Site: Commerce Server Concepts
URL: http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/en-us/comsrv2k/htm/cs_gs_concepts_ntqq.asp


Example using ACM

MICROSOFT CORPORATION. 2003. Site management cycle. Commerce server concepts.     http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/en-us/comsrv2k/htm/cs_gs_concepts_ntqq.asp.


Example using APA

Microsoft Corporation. (2003). Site management cycle. Commerce server concepts. Retrieved     from http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/en-us/comsrv2k/htm/cs_gs_concepts_ntqq.asp


Example using IEEE

[2]  Microsoft Corporation, "Site management cycle," 2003, http://msdn.microsoft.com/      library/en-us/comsrv2k/htm/cs_gs_concepts_ntqq.asp.


Information needed for an Article in electronic Newsletter or Magazine (html document, URL significant)
Author:  Chris Sherman
Date:  2002 April 2
Title:  Teoma vs. Google, Round Two
Newsletter:  SearchDay
URL:  http://searchenginewatch.com/searchday/02/sd0402-teoma.html


Example using ACM

SHERMAN, C. 2002. Teoma vs. Google, round two. SearchDay.     http://searchenginewatch.com/searchday/02/sd0402-teoma.html.


Example using APA

Sherman, C. (2002, April 2). Teoma vs. Google, round two. SearchDay.     Retrieved from http://searchenginewatch.com/searchday/02/sd0402-teoma.html


Example using IEEE

[3]  C. Sherman, "Teoma vs. Google, round two," April 2, 2002,      http://searchenginewatch.com/searchday/02/sd0402-teoma.html.


Information needed for the ACM Digital Library (pdf document, URL not relevant)
Author:  Jef Raskin
Date:  1997 February
Title:  Looking for a humane interface: will computers ever become easy to use?
Journal:  Communications of the ACM
Specifics:  Volume 40, Issue 2, pages 98-101
  Note: Although accessed electronically, the URL is not significant.


Example using ACM

RASKIN, J. 1997. Looking for a humane interface: Will computers ever become easy to use?     Communications of the ACM, 40, 2, 98-101.


Example using APA

Raskin, J. (1997, February). Looking for a humane interface: Will computers ever become     easy to use? Communications of the ACM, 40(2), 98-101.


Example using IEEE

[4]  J. Raskin, "Looking for a humane interface: Will computers ever become easy to use?"      Communications of the ACM, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 98-101, Feb. 1997.


Information needed for the IEEE Electronic Library (pdf document, URL not relevant)
Author:  M. Phillips
Date:  2001 October
Title:  Reducing the cost of Bluetooth systems
Journal:  Electronics & Communication Engineering Journal
Specifics:  Volume: 13, Issue: 5, pages 204-208
  Note: Although accessed electronically, the URL is not significant.


Example using ACM

PHILLIPS, M. 2001. Reducing the cost of Bluetooth systems. Electronics & Communication     Engineering Journal, 13, 5, 204-208.


Example using APA

Phillips, M. (2001, October). Reducing the cost of Bluetooth systems.     Electronics & Communication Engineering Journal, 13(5), 204-208.


Example using IEEE

[5]  M. Phillips, "Reducing the cost of Bluetooth systems," Electronics & Communication      Engineering Journal, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 204-208, Oct. 2001.


Information needed for a Journal Article with a DOI (Digital Object Identifier)
Author:  Heather L. O'Brien and Elaine G. Toms
Date:  April 2008
Title:  What is user engagement? A conceptual framework for defining user engagement with technology
Journal:  Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology (JASIST)
Specifics:  Volume 59, Issue 6, pages 938-955
DOI: 10.1002/asi.20801
  Note: The DOI is a unique number used to identify a specific article.


Example using ACM

O'BRIEN, H.L. AND TOMS, E.G. 2008. What is user engagement? A conceptual framework     for defining user engagement with technology. Journal of the American Society     for Information Science and Technology, 59, 6, 938-955.


Example using APA

O'Brien, H.L., & Toms, E.G. (2008). What is user engagement? A conceptual framework     for defining user engagement with technology. Journal of the American Society     for Information Science and Technology, 59(6), 938-955. doi:10.1002/asi.20801


Example using IEEE

[6]  H.L. O'Brien and E.G. Toms, "What is user engagement? A conceptual framework for      defining user engagement with technology," Journal of the American Society      for Information Science and Technology, vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 938-955, Apr. 2008.


Information needed for a Journal Article (multiple formats online, URL to a directory)
Author:  E.F. Vasechkina and V.D. Yarin
Date:  2001
Title:  Evolving polynomial neural network by means of genetic algorithm: some application examples
Journal:  Complexity International
Specifics:  Volume 09
URL:  http://www.csu.edu.au/ci/vol09/vasech01/
  Note: The URL goes to a directory where the format is selected.


Example using ACM

VASECHKINA, E.F. AND YARDIN, V.D. 2001. Evolving polynomial neural network by means     of genetic algorithm: Some application examples.  Complexity International, 09.     http://www.csu.edu.au/ci/vol09/vasech01/.


Example using APA

Vasechkina, E.F., & Yarin, V.D. (2001). Evolving polynomial neural network by means     of genetic algorithm: Some application examples. Complexity International, 09.     Retrieved from http://www.csu.edu.au/ci/vol09/vasech01/


Example using IEEE

[7]  E.F. Vasechkina and V.D. Yarin, "Evolving polynomial neural network by means of      genetic algorithm: Some application examples," Complexity International, vol. 09,      2001, http://www.csu.edu.au/ci/vol09/vasech01/.


Information needed for a Journal Article (multiple formats online, URL to a file)
Author:  O. Edelstein, E. Farchi, Y. Nir, G. Ratsaby, S. Ur
  Note: This gives an example for more than three authors, to be cited as Edelstein et al.
Date:  2002
Title:  Multithreaded Java program test generation
Journal:  IBM Systems Journal
Specifics:  Volume 41, No. 1, pages 111-125
URL:  http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/sj/411/edelstein.html
URL:  http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/sj/411/edelstein.pdf
  Note: When there is a URL for both formats, use the pdf instead of the html.


Example using ACM

EDELSTEIN, O., FARCHI, E., NIR, Y., RATSABY, G., AND UR, S. 2002. Multithreaded     Java program test generation. IBM Systems Journal, 41, 1, 111-125.     http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/sj/411/edelstein.pdf.


Example using APA

Edelstein, O., Farchi, E., Nir, Y., Ratsaby, G., & Ur, S. (2002). Multithreaded     Java program test generation. IBM Systems Journal, 41(1), 111-125. Retrieved     from http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/sj/411/edelstein.pdf


Example using IEEE

[8]  O. Edelestein, E. Farchi, Y. Nir, G. Ratsaby, and S. Ur, "Multithreaded Java      program test generation," IBM Systems Journal, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 111-125, 2002,      http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/sj/411/edelstein.pdf.


Information needed for a Journal Article (from a print source, no URL)
Author:  R.R. Yager
Date:  July 1977
Title:  Multiple objective decision-making using fuzzy sets
Journal:  International journal of man-machine studies
Specifics:  Volume 9, Number 4, 375-382

Note: Articles published in the 1970's or earlier are usually available in print format only.

Note: Journal names are often abbreviated. The abbreviation for the International Journal of Man-Machine Studies is Int. J. Man-Machine Studies. Although you will see abbreviations used in published journals, as a student, it is best to use the journal's full name in your list of references.

Note: Sometimes the name of a journal is changed to better reflect the area of interest. In 1994, the International Journal of Man-Machine Studies was renamed to the International Journal of Human-Computer Studies. Always use the name of the journal that matches the date of the article you are going to reference.


Example using ACM

YAGER, R.R. 1977. Multiple objective decision-making using fuzzy sets. International     Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 9, 4, 375-382.


Example using APA

Yager, R.R. (1977, July). Multiple objective decision-making using fuzzy sets.     International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 9(4), 375-382.


Example using IEEE

[9]  R.R. Yager, "Multiple objective decision-making using fuzzy sets," International      Journal of Man-Machine Studies, vol. 9, no. 4, pp.375-382, Jul. 1977.


Information needed for a Conference Paper (from Proceedings)
Author:  Kun-Lung Wu, Charu C. Aggarwal and Philip S. Yu
Date:  2001
Title:  Personalization with Dynamic Profiler
Proceedings:  Proceedings Third International Workshop on Advanced Issues of E-Commerce and Web-Based Information Systems, WECWIS 2001
Place of Conference:  Santa Juan, California
Date of Conference:  21-22 June 2001
City where Proceedings Published:  Los Alamitos, California
Publisher of Proceedings:  IEEE Computer Society
Pages:  12-20


Example using ACM

WU, K.-L., AGGARWAL, C.C. AND YU, P.S. 2001. Personalization with dynamic profiler.     In Proceedings of the third international workshop on advanced issues     of e-commerce and web-based information systems, WECWIS 2001, Santa Juan,     California, June 2001, IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CA, 12-20.


Example using APA

Wu, K.-L., Aggarwal, C.C., & Yu, P.S. (2001). Personalization with dynamic profiler.     In Proceedings of the third international workshop on advanced issues     of e-commerce and web-based information systems, WECWIS 2001, Santa Juan,     California, June 21-22, 2001. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society. 12-20.


Example using IEEE

[10] K.-L. Wu, C.C. Aggarwal, and P.S. Yu, "Personalization with dynamic profiler,"      in Proceedings of the third international workshop on advanced issues of      e-commerce and web-based information systems, 2001, pp. 12-20.


Information needed for a Book (by one or more authors)
Author:  Trevor Hastie, Robert Tibshirani, and Jerome H. Friedman
Date:  2001
Title:  The elements of statistical learning: data mining, inference, and prediction (Springer Series in Statistics)
Place where published:  New York, NY
Publisher:  Springer-Verlag


Example using ACM

HASTIE, T., TIBSHIRANI, R. AND FRIEDMAN, J.H. 2001. The elements of statistical learning:     Data mining, inference, and prediction, Springer Series in Statistics.     Springer-Verlag, New York, NY.


Example using APA

Hastie, T., Tibshirani, R., & Friedman, J.H. (2001). The elements of statistical learning:     Data mining, inference, and prediction, Springer Series in Statistics.     New York: Springer-Verlag.


Example using IEEE

[11] T. Hastie, R. Tibshirani, and J.H. Friedman, The elements of statistical learning:      Data mining, inference, and prediction, Springer Series in Statistics.      New York: Springer-Verlag, 2001.


Information needed for an Authored Chapter in a Book (by one or more editors)
Author:  M.T. Maybury
Date:  2001
Title of Chapter:  Intelligent user interfaces for all
Title of Book:  User interfaces for all: concepts, methods and tools
Editor:  Constantine Stephanidis
Place Book Published:  Mahwah, New Jersey
Publisher:  Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Pages:  65-80

Note: The abbreviation for an editor is Ed. (and for more than one editors it is Eds.)


Example using ACM

MAYBURY, M.T. 2001. Intelligent user interfaces for all. In User interfaces for all:     Concepts, methods and tools, C. STEPHANIDIS, Ed. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates,     Mahwah, NJ, 65-80.


Example using APA

Maybury, M.T. (2001). Intelligent user interfaces for all. In C. Stephanidis (Ed.),     User interfaces for all: Concepts, methods and tools (pp. 65-80). Mahwah, NJ:     Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.


Example using IEEE

[12] M.T. Maybury, "Intelligent user interfaces for all," in User interfaces for all:      Concepts, methods and tools, C. Stephanidis, Ed. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum      Associates, 2001, pp. 65-80.


Information needed for an International Standard (from a print source, no URL)
Designation:  ANSI T1.602
Date:  1989
Title:  Telecommunications -- Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) --
Data-Link Layer Signaling Specification for Application at the User-Network Interface


Example using ACM

ANSI T1.602. 1989. Telecommunications -- Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) --     Data-Link Layer Signaling Specification for Application at the     User-Network Interface.


Example using APA

ANSI T1.602. (1989). Telecommunications -- Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) --     Data-Link Layer Signaling Specification for Application at the     User-Network Interface.


Example using IEEE

[13] ANSI T1.602-1989, Telecommunications-Integrated Services Digital Network      (ISDN) - Data-Link Layer Signaling Specification for Application      at the User-Network Interface.


Information needed for an International Standard (html document, URL significant)
Designation:  ISO/IEC JTC1/SC34
Date:  1998
Title:  Document Description and Processing Languages
URL:  http://www.ornl.gov/sgml/sc34/document/0029.htm


Example using ACM

ISO/IEC JTC1/SC34. 1998. Document Description and Processing Languages.     http://www.ornl.gov/sgml/sc34/document/0029.htm.


Example using APA

ISO/IEC JTC1/SC34. (1998). Document Description and Processing Languages.     Retrieved from http://www.ornl.gov/sgml/sc34/document/0029.htm


Example using IEEE

[14] ISO/IEC JTC1/SC34:1998, Document Description and Processing Languages,      http://www.ornl.gov/sgml/sc34/document/0029.htm.


Information needed for a Technical Report (from a print source, no URL)
Author:  P.T. Cox and T. Pietrzykowski
Date:  1984
Title:  Advanced programming aids in PROGRAPH
Organization:  Technical University of Nova Scotia
Technical Report Number:  8404
Place where published:  Halifax, NS
Publisher:  School of Computer Science, Technical University of Nova Scotia


Example using ACM

COX, P.T. AND PIETRZYKOWSKI, T. 1984. Advanced programming aids in     PROGRAPH. Technical University of Nova Scotia, TR No. 8404.     School of Computer Science, Technical University of Nova Scotia,     Halifax, NS.


Example using APA

Cox, P.T., & Pietrzykowski, T. (1984). Advanced programming aids in     PROGRAPH (Technical University of Nova Scotia, Technical Report     No. 8404). Halifax, NS: School of Computer Science, Technical     University of Nova Scotia.


Example using IEEE

[15] P.T. Cox and T. Pietrzykowski, Advanced programming aids in PROGRAPH,      Technical University of Nova Scotia, Report 8404. Halifax, NS:      School of Computer Science, Technical University of Nova Scotia, 1984.


Information needed for a Technical Report (pdf document, URL significant)
Author:  Vlado Keselj and Nick Cercone
Date:  January 2002
Title:  A Graph Unification Machine for N.L. Parsing
Organization:  University of Waterloo
Technical Report Number:  CS-2002-01
URL:  http://www.cs.uwaterloo.ca/cs-archive/CS-2002/01/CS-2002-01.pdf


Example using ACM

KESELJ V. AND CERCONE, N. 2002. A Graph Unification Machine for N.L.      Parsing. University of Waterloo, TR No. CS-2002-01.      http://www.cs.uwaterloo.ca/cs-archive/CS-2002/01/CS-2002-01.pdf.


Example using APA

Keselj V., & Cercone, N. (2002, January). A Graph Unification Machine      for N.L. Parsing (University of Waterloo, Technical Report      No. CS-2002-01). Retrieved from http://www.cs.uwaterloo.ca/      cs-archive/CS-2002/01/CS-2002-01.pdf


Example using IEEE

[16] V. Keselj and N. Cercone, A Graph Unification Machine for N.L.       Parsing, University of Waterloo, Report CS-2002-01, January, 2002,       http://www.cs.uwaterloo.ca/cs-archive/CS-2002/01/CS-2002-01.pdf.

 

First: Issues in text: how to cite properly.

  • Citations as words: Huge pet peeve: Using citations as words. van Leunen: “Brackets are not words. A bracketed number is just a pointer, not a word. Never, ever, use a bracketed number as if it were the name of an author or a work.” (p. 20). So instead of “A similar strategy is described in [15].”), use instead “A similar strategy is discussed by AuthorOne et al. [15]”. The way you can get this right in your head is considering a journal that does citations as superscripts (like the old Graphics Hardware style). It looks really stupid to say “A similar strategy is discussed by 15.” I don't like this particular style for citation, but it does make sure citations aren't used as words.

  • Citing with LaTeX: When writing citations in LaTeX, do them in this form:

    The ~ means non-breaking space (which is what you want—you don't want a linebreak between the text and the citation).

    Also, do

    instead of

    Always alphabetize grouped citations so they appear in numerical order (instead of [8, 6, 10], arrange the citations so it looks like [6, 8, 10]). supposedly puts them in proper order for you automatically (!) and also changes [1,2,3,4,6] to [1–4,6] which is handy.

  • Shortcite: Use when appropriate. is used in sentences like “AuthorOne discusses this point further in her dissertation [AuthorOne 2002].” It looks silly to put AuthorOne's name twice. Instead, use , which makes the sentence “AuthorOne discusses this point further in her dissertation [2002].” Of course this only makes sense if you are using a citation format that lists author name / year (like Siggraph or most dissertation formats).

    I always use in my text even when my bib style doesn't support it, in which case I use the following fix in my LaTeX preamble (this defines if it's not already defined, otherwise it has no effect):

    If you don't have this command, you'll see an error like:

  • Sorting your references: If at all possible, arrange your reference list in alphabetical order by author's last name. Going in cited order is much less useful to readers of your paper. The only reason I've heard that cited-order is useful is in a survey article where nearby (and presumably related) citations from the paper are next to each other in the bibliography. I don't find this argument particularly compelling.

  • Next: issues with bibliographies (your .bib file). Big picture: Don't trust the digital library to give you a perfect .bib file. Both ACM and IEEE (as well as many others) screw up bibliography entries in delightfully creative ways.

  • Names: Make the names in the bibliography match what is printed on the paper. If the paper has as the author, put that in your bibliography. If it has initials, use those. If it has crazy umlauts and accents, use those too. If it has initials, make sure they are separated by spaces: use rather than . The latter leads bibtex to believe the first name is with no middle name/initial. (And then if your bibstyle abbreviates first names, you'll just get the initial without the middle initial, since bibtex doesn't think you have a middle name.)

    For hyphenated names with the second half uncapitalized (Wu-chun Feng, Wen-mei Hwu), put the hyphen and second half in brackets: , .

  • Capitalization in titles: Just like with authors, the capitalization on titles in your bibtex file should match what's on the paper. The bib style should enforce capitalization, not your bibliography—your bib should faithfully represent what's printed on the paper.

    Also, make sure, in your BibTeX file, that you properly bracket words in titles that must be capitalized, like GPU or PDE, or proper names. Example (the “Loop” should always be capitalized since it's a last name):

    You don't have to do this with venues (or anything else), just the title.

    Resist the temptation to double-brace the entire title as a manner of course: . This guarantees your title will always be capitalized. But many bib styles downcase all titles, in which case your title will stick out like a sore thumb. Instead, just put your title in single-braces or quotes and let the bib style do the right thing.

    (What is the right thing? In the US, publishers capitalize most words in titles [title case]; in the UK, publishers use the same capitalization rules as normal sentences [sentence case]. [Wikipedia link.] Markus Kuhn's thoughts on the subject are congruent with mine, that sentence case is preferable from an information-theoretic point of view, but in practice, authors should follow the conventions of their publication venue.)

    If the title is in all-caps, I usually rewrite it in title case.

    [ Capitalisation in BibTeX, from the TeX FAQ ]

  • Venues: Both ACM and IEEE screw up venue names in different ways. Here's how IEEE formatted a recent venue name in a recent paper of mine:

    Never use the ACM or IEEE digital library's citations without fixing them. For some reason the First Society of Computing and the World's Largest Professional Association for the Advancement of Technology have zero interest in making their capitalization correct. For instance, the first paper I ever wrote, according to ACM, has the following title and booktitle:

    when the paper has the major words in the title capitalized, and “workshop” and “hardware” should both be capitalized in the booktitle. I often review papers where citations have been taken directly from ACM with bizarre capitalization particularly in the booktitle. Fix these before you submit a paper.

  • Months: Include the month of publication in your bibliographies (simply for your own records: when you have two papers talking about a similar idea, one in January and one in November of the same year, maintaining the month lets you determine which came first).

    Always use three-letter abbreviations without quotes for months. These are built into bibtex. They allow the bib style to actually know what month it is, so the bib style can enforce a consistent style across all citations (1/2012? Jan. 2012? January 2012? Januar 2012 [foreign language]?).

    Digital libraries often get these wrong (IEEE uses ).

  • Pages: Always include pages if pages are available. Ranges of pages use the en-dash to separate them (that's two dashes): . Some non-printed proceedings only assign a paper number, so for those I typically see (and use) something like , where is the paper number and the paper has pages.

    Also, if the bib source says that your paper starts on page 1, double-check it. Make sure that it doesn't list every paper in the conference/journal starting on page 1 (like the rocket scientists at IPDPS 2009 who decided it would be a good idea to assign neither page numbers nor paper IDs [example]). It's a little embarrassing when you cite two papers in your article and they both start on page 1 of the same conference. (Usually, you should figure out the paper number in the conference and use . If you can't make your page numbers unique, leave them out entirely.)

  • DOIs: DOIs uniquely identify a paper. Even if your style doesn't use them, you should record them in your bibtex file. Store them as the numbers only (DOIs have the format ; store the part after only). Bibliography tools seem to use this format predominantly.

  • URLs: If you're putting a URL into your bibliography, wrap it in (and put in your LaTeX preamble) so it wraps nicely. If you add a DOI with a tag, you don't need to add the DOI as as well.

  • Let's see where digital libraries get these things wrong! Corrections are in blue.

    IEEE:

    Problems with IEEE: Did not use the names that were printed on the paper; did not put accents on proper characters; did not separate first initial and middle initial with a space; venue title is strangely wrapped around with the comma; did not capitalize paper title as it was on the paper; did not use bibtex month abbreviations; did not use en-dash to separate out page numbers.

    ACM:

    Problems with ACM: Did not capitalize paper title as it was on the paper; added a URL that's redundant with the DOI; did not store DOI as numbers only. Notable: On this paper, ACM got the venue capitalization correct!

    Also see Dan Wallach's thoughts on the matter.

    John Owens | Last updated .

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