• Home   /  
  • Archive by category "1"

Compound Assignment Operator Overloading In C++ Example Tutorial

Customizes the C++ operators for operands of user-defined types.

[edit]Syntax

Overloaded operators are functions with special function names:

op (1)
type (2)

(3)

(4)
suffix-identifier (5) (since C++11)
op - any of the following 38(until C++20)39(since C++20) operators:+-*/%^&|~!=<>+=-=*=/=%=^=&=|=<<>>>>=<<===!=<=>=<=>(since C++20)&&||++--,->*->()[]

1) overloaded operator;

2)user-defined conversion function;

3)allocation function;

4)deallocation function;

5)user-defined literal.

[edit]Overloaded operators

When an operator appears in an expression, and at least one of its operands has a class type or an enumeration type, then overload resolution is used to determine the user-defined function to be called among all the functions whose signatures match the following:

Expression As member function As non-member function Example
@a (a).operator@ ( ) operator@ (a) !std::cin calls std::cin.operator!()
a@b (a).operator@ (b) operator@ (a, b) std::cout<<42 calls std::cout.operator<<(42)
a=b (a).operator= (b) cannot be non-member std::string s; s ="abc"; calls s.operator=("abc")
a(b...) (a).operator()(b...) cannot be non-member std::random_device r;auto n = r(); calls r.operator()()
a[b] (a).operator[](b) cannot be non-member std::map<int, int> m; m[1]=2; calls m.operator[](1)
a-> (a).operator-> ( ) cannot be non-member auto p =std::make_unique<S>(); p->bar() calls p.operator->()
a@ (a).operator@ (0) operator@ (a, 0) std::vector<int>::iterator i = v.begin(); i++ calls i.operator++(0)

in this table, is a placeholder representing all matching operators: all prefix operators in @a, all postfix operators other than -> in a@, all infix operators other than = in a@b

Note: for overloading user-defined conversion functions, user-defined literals, allocation and deallocation see their respective articles.

Overloaded operators (but not the built-in operators) can be called using function notation:

[edit]Restrictions

  • The operators (scope resolution), (member access), (member access through pointer to member), and (ternary conditional) cannot be overloaded.
  • New operators such as , , or cannot be created.
  • The overloads of operators and lose short-circuit evaluation.
  • The overload of operator must either return a raw pointer or return an object (by reference or by value), for which operator is in turn overloaded.
  • It is not possible to change the precedence, grouping, or number of operands of operators.
  • , , and (comma) lose their special sequencing properties when overloaded and behave like regular function calls even when they are used without function-call notation.
(until C++17)

[edit]Canonical implementations

Other than the restrictions above, the language puts no other constraints on what the overloaded operators do, or on the return type (it does not participate in overload resolution), but in general, overloaded operators are expected to behave as similar as possible to the built-in operators: operator+ is expected to add, rather than multiply its arguments, operator= is expected to assign, etc. The related operators are expected to behave similarly (operator+ and operator+= do the same addition-like operation). The return types are limited by the expressions in which the operator is expected to be used: for example, assignment operators return by reference to make it possible to write a = b = c = d, because the built-in operators allow that.

Commonly overloaded operators have the following typical, canonical forms:[1]

[edit]Assignment operator

The assignment operator (operator=) has special properties: see copy assignment and move assignment for details.

The canonical copy-assignment operator is expected to perform no action on self-assignment, and to return the lhs by reference:

The canonical move assignment is expected to leave the moved-from object in valid state (that is, a state with class invariants intact), and either do nothing or at least leave the object in a valid state on self-assignment, and return the lhs by reference to non-const, and be noexcept:

In those situations where copy assignment cannot benefit from resource reuse (it does not manage a heap-allocated array and does not have a (possibly transitive) member that does, such as a member std::vector or std::string), there is a popular convenient shorthand: the copy-and-swap assignment operator, which takes its parameter by value (thus working as both copy- and move-assignment depending on the value category of the argument), swaps with the parameter, and lets the destructor clean it up.

This form automatically provides strong exception guarantee, but prohibits resource reuse.

[edit]Stream extraction and insertion

The overloads of and that take a std::istream& or std::ostream& as the left hand argument are known as insertion and extraction operators. Since they take the user-defined type as the right argument ( in a@b), they must be implemented as non-members.

These operators are sometimes implemented as friend functions.

[edit]Function call operator

When a user-defined class overloads the function call operator, operator(), it becomes a type. Many standard algorithms, from std::sort to std::accumulate accept objects of such types to customize behavior. There are no particularly notable canonical forms of operator(), but to illustrate the usage

[edit]Increment and decrement

When the postfix increment and decrement appear in an expression, the corresponding user-defined function (operator++ or operator--) is called with an integer argument . Typically, it is implemented as T operator++(int), where the argument is ignored. The postfix increment and decrement operator is usually implemented in terms of the prefix version:

Although canonical form of pre-increment/pre-decrement returns a reference, as with any operator overload, the return type is user-defined; for example the overloads of these operators for std::atomic return by value.

[edit]Binary arithmetic operators

Binary operators are typically implemented as non-members to maintain symmetry (for example, when adding a complex number and an integer, if is a member function of the complex type, then only complex+integer would compile, and not integer+complex). Since for every binary arithmetic operator there exists a corresponding compound assignment operator, canonical forms of binary operators are implemented in terms of their compound assignments:

[edit]Relational operators

Standard algorithms such as std::sort and containers such as std::set expect operator< to be defined, by default, for the user-provided types, and expect it to implement strict weak ordering (thus satisfying the concept). An idiomatic way to implement strict weak ordering for a structure is to use lexicographical comparison provided by std::tie:

Typically, once operator< is provided, the other relational operators are implemented in terms of operator<.

Likewise, the inequality operator is typically implemented in terms of operator==:

When three-way comparison (such as std::memcmp or std::string::compare) is provided, all six relational operators may be expressed through that:

All six relational operators are automatically generated by the compiler if the three-way comparison operator operator<=> is defined, and that operator, in turn, is generated by the compiler if it is defined as defaulted:

See default comparisons for details.

struct Record {std::string name;unsignedint floor;double weight;auto operator<=>(const Record&)=default;};// records can now be compared with ==, !=, <, <=, >, and >=
(since C++20)

[edit]Array subscript operator

User-defined classes that provide array-like access that allows both reading and writing typically define two overloads for operator[]: const and non-const variants:

If the value type is known to be a built-in type, the const variant should return by value.

Where direct access to the elements of the container is not wanted or not possible or distinguishing between lvalue c[i]= v; and rvalue v = c[i]; usage, operator[] may return a proxy. see for example std::bitset::operator[].

To provide multidimensional array access semantics, e.g. to implement a 3D array access a[i][j][k]= x;, operator[] has to return a reference to a 2D plane, which has to have its own operator[] which returns a reference to a 1D row, which has to have operator[] which returns a reference to the element. To avoid this complexity, some libraries opt for overloading operator() instead, so that 3D access expressions have the Fortran-like syntax a(i, j, k)= x;

[edit]Bitwise arithmetic operators

User-defined classes and enumerations that implement the requirements of are required to overload the bitwise arithmetic operators operator&, operator|, operator^, operator~, operator&=, operator|=, and operator^=, and may optionally overload the shift operators operator<<operator>>, operator>>=, and operator<<=. The canonical implementations usually follow the pattern for binary arithmetic operators described above.

[edit]Boolean negation operator

The operator operator! is commonly overloaded by the user-defined classes that are intended to be used in boolean contexts. Such classes also provide a user-defined conversion function explicit operator bool() (see std::basic_ios for the standard library example), and the expected behavior of operator! is to return the value opposite of operator bool.

[edit]Rarely overloaded operators

The following operators are rarely overloaded:

  • The address-of operator, operator&. If the unary & is applied to an lvalue of incomplete type and the complete type declares an overloaded operator&, the behavior is undefined(until C++11) it is implementation-defined whether the overloaded operator is used(since C++11). Because this operator may be overloaded, generic libraries use std::addressof to obtain addresses of objects of user-defined types. The best known example of a canonical overloaded operator& is the Microsoft class CComPtr. An example of its use in EDSL can be found in boost.spirit.
  • The boolean logic operators, operator&& and operator||. Unlike the built-in versions, the overloads cannot implement short-circuit evaluation. Also unlike the built-in versions, they do not sequence their left operand before the right one.(until C++17) In the standard library, these operators are only overloaded for std::valarray.
  • The comma operator, operator,. Unlike the built-in version, the overloads do not sequence their left operand before the right one.(until C++17) Because this operator may be overloaded, generic libraries use expressions such as a,void(),b instead of a,b to sequence execution of expressions of user-defined types. The boost library uses in boost.assign, boost.spirit, and other libraries. The database access library SOCI also overloads .
  • The member access through pointer to member operator->*. There are no specific downsides to overloading this operator, but it is rarely used in practice. It was suggested that it could be part of smart pointer interface, and in fact is used in that capacity by actors in boost.phoenix. It is more common in EDSLs such as cpp.react.

[edit]Example

Run this code

Output:

#include <iostream>   class Fraction {int gcd(int a, int b){return b ==0? a : gcd(b, a % b);}int n, d;public: Fraction(int n, int d =1): n(n/gcd(n, d)), d(d/gcd(n, d)){}int num()const{return n;}int den()const{return d;} Fraction& operator*=(const Fraction& rhs){int new_n = n * rhs.n/gcd(n * rhs.n, d * rhs.d); d = d * rhs.d/gcd(n * rhs.n, d * rhs.d); n = new_n;return*this;}};std::ostream& operator<<(std::ostream& out, const Fraction& f){return out << f.num()<<'/'<< f.den();}bool operator==(const Fraction& lhs, const Fraction& rhs){return lhs.num()== rhs.num()&& lhs.den()== rhs.den();}bool operator!=(const Fraction& lhs, const Fraction& rhs){return!(lhs == rhs);} Fraction operator*(Fraction lhs, const Fraction& rhs){return lhs *= rhs;}   int main(){ Fraction f1(3, 8), f2(1, 2), f3(10, 2);std::cout<< f1 <<" * "<< f2 <<" = "<< f1 * f2 <<'\n'<< f2 <<" * "<< f3 <<" = "<< f2 * f3 <<'\n'<<2<<" * "<< f1 <<" = "<<2* f1 <<'\n';}
3/8 * 1/2 = 3/16 1/2 * 5/1 = 5/2 2 * 3/8 = 3/4

[edit]Defect reports

The following behavior-changing defect reports were applied retroactively to previously published C++ standards.

DR Applied to Behavior as published Correct behavior
CWG 1458 C++11 taking address of incomplete type that overloads address-of was undefined behavior the behavior is only unspecified

[edit]See Also

Common operators
assignment increment
decrement
arithmetic logical comparison member
access
other

a = b
a += b
a -= b
a *= b
a /= b
a %= b
a &= b
a |= b
a ^= b
a <<= b
a >>= b

++a
--a
a++
a--

+a
-a
a + b
a - b
a * b
a / b
a % b
~a
a & b
a | b
a ^ b
a << b
a >> b

!a
a && b
a || b

a == b
a != b
a < b
a > b
a <= b
a >= b
a <=> b

a[b]
*a
&a
a->b
a.b
a->*b
a.*b

a(...)
a, b
?:

Special operators

converts one type to another related type
converts within inheritance hierarchies
adds or removes cv qualifiers
converts type to unrelated type
C-style cast converts one type to another by a mix of , , and
creates objects with dynamic storage duration
destructs objects previously created by the new expression and releases obtained memory area
queries the size of a type
queries the size of a parameter pack(since C++11)
queries the type information of a type
checks if an expression can throw an exception (since C++11)
queries alignment requirements of a type (since C++11)

[edit]References

  1. ↑Operator Overloading on StackOverflow C++ FAQ
std::string str ="Hello, "; str.operator+=("world");// same as str += "world"; operator<<(operator<<(std::cout, str) , '\n');// same as std::cout << str << '\n';// (since C++17) except for sequencing
// assume the object holds reusable storage, such as a heap-allocated buffer mArray T& operator=(const T& other)// copy assignment{if(this !=&other){// self-assignment check expectedif(other.size!= size){// storage cannot be reused delete[] mArray;// destroy storage in this size =0; mArray = nullptr;// preserve invariants in case next line throws mArray = new int[other.size];// create storage in this size = other.size;}std::copy(other.mArray, other.mArray+ other.size, mArray);}return*this;}
T& operator=(T&& other)noexcept// move assignment{if(this !=&other){// no-op on self-move-assignment (delete[]/size=0 also ok) delete[] mArray;// delete this storage mArray =std::exchange(other.mArray, nullptr);// leave moved-from in valid state size =std::exchange(other.size, 0);}return*this;}
T& T::operator=(T arg)noexcept// copy/move constructor is called to construct arg{ swap(arg);// resources are exchanged between *this and argreturn*this;}// destructor of arg is called to release the resources formerly held by *this
std::ostream& operator<<(std::ostream& os, const T& obj){// write obj to streamreturn os;}std::istream& operator>>(std::istream& is, T& obj){// read obj from streamif(/* T could not be constructed */) is.setstate(std::ios::failbit);return is;}
struct Sum {int sum; Sum(): sum(0){}void operator()(int n){ sum += n;}}; Sum s =std::for_each(v.begin(), v.end(), Sum());
struct X { X& operator++(){// actual increment takes place herereturn*this;} X operator++(int){ X tmp(*this);// copy operator++();// pre-incrementreturn tmp;// return old value}};
class X {public: X& operator+=(const X& rhs)// compound assignment (does not need to be a member,{// but often is, to modify the private members)/* addition of rhs to *this takes place here */return*this;// return the result by reference}   // friends defined inside class body are inline and are hidden from non-ADL lookupfriend X operator+(X lhs, // passing lhs by value helps optimize chained a+b+cconst X& rhs)// otherwise, both parameters may be const references{ lhs += rhs;// reuse compound assignmentreturn lhs;// return the result by value (uses move constructor)}};
struct Record {std::string name;unsignedint floor;double weight;friendbool operator<(const Record& l, const Record& r){returnstd::tie(l.name, l.floor, l.weight)<std::tie(r.name, r.floor, r.weight);// keep the same order}};
inlinebool operator<(const X& lhs, const X& rhs){/* do actual comparison */}inlinebool operator>(const X& lhs, const X& rhs){return rhs < lhs;}inlinebool operator<=(const X& lhs, const X& rhs){return!(lhs > rhs);}inlinebool operator>=(const X& lhs, const X& rhs){return!(lhs < rhs);}
inlinebool operator==(const X& lhs, const X& rhs){/* do actual comparison */}inlinebool operator!=(const X& lhs, const X& rhs){return!(lhs == rhs);}
inlinebool operator==(const X& lhs, const X& rhs){return cmp(lhs,rhs)==0;}inlinebool operator!=(const X& lhs, const X& rhs){return cmp(lhs,rhs)!=0;}inlinebool operator<(const X& lhs, const X& rhs){return cmp(lhs,rhs)<0;}inlinebool operator>(const X& lhs, const X& rhs){return cmp(lhs,rhs)>0;}inlinebool operator<=(const X& lhs, const X& rhs){return cmp(lhs,rhs)<=0;}inlinebool operator>=(const X& lhs, const X& rhs){return cmp(lhs,rhs)>=0;}
struct T { value_t& operator[](std::size_t idx){return mVector[idx];}const value_t& operator[](std::size_t idx)const{return mVector[idx];}};

Now we know how to use variables and constants, we can begin to use them with operators. Operators are integrated in the C++ language. The C++ operators are mostly made out of signs (some language use keywords instead.)

Assignment

We used this operator before and it should already be known to you. For the people that didn’t read the previous tutorials we will give a short description.

With an assignment (=) operator you can assign a value to a variable.
For example: A = 5; or B = -10; or A = B;
Let’s look at A = B : The value that is stored in B will be stored in A. The initial value of A will be lost.

So if we say:

Then A will contain the value twenty.

The following expression is also valid in C++: A = B = C = 10;
The variables A,B,C will now contain the value ten.

Calculations (arithmetic operators)

There are different operators that can be used for calculations which are listed in the following table:

Operator

Operation

+

Addition

Subtraction

*

Multiplication

/

Division

%

Modulus(Remainder
of integer
division)

Now that we know the different operators, let’s calculate something:

Note: The value stored in A at the end of the program will be eight.

Compound assignments

Compound assignments can be used when you want to modify the value of a variable by performing an operation on the value currently stored in that variable. (For example: A = A + 1 ).

  • Writing <var> += <expr> is the same as <var> = <var> + <expr>.
  • Writing <var> -= <expr> is the same as <var> = <var> – <expr>.
  • Writing <var> /= <expr> is the same as <var> = <var> / <expr>.
  • Writing <var> *= <expr> is the same as <var> = <var> * <expr>.

Decrease and increase operators

The increase operator (++) and the decrease operator (–) are used to increase or reduce the value
stored in the variable by one.

Example: A++; is the same as A+=1; or A= A + 1;

A characteristic of this operator is that it can be used as a prefix or as a suffix (before or after). Example: A++; or ++A; have exactly the same meaning. But in some expressions they can have a different result.

For instance: In the case that the decrease operator is used as a prefix (–A) the value is decreased before the result of the expression is evaluated. Example:

Note:My_var is decreased before the value is copied to A. So My_var contains 9 and A will contain 9.

In case that it is used as a suffix (A–) the value stored in A is decreased after being evaluated and therefore the value stored before the decrease operation is evaluated in the outer expression. Example:

Note:The value of My_var is copied to A and then My_var is decreased. So My_var will contain 9 and A will contain 10.

Relation or equal operators

With the relation and equal operators it is possible to make a comparison between two expressions. The result is a Boolean value that can be true or false. See the table for the operators:

==

Equal
to

!=

Not equal
to

>

Greater
than

<

Less
than

>=

Greater than or equal
to

<=

Less than or equal
to

You have to be careful that you don’t use one equal sign (=) instead of two equal signs (==). The first one is an assignment operator, the second one is a compare operator.

Logical operators

Logical operators are mainly used to control program flow. Usually, you will find them as part of an if, while, or some other control statement. The operators are:

  • <op1> || <op2> – A logical OR of the two operands
  • <op1> && <op2> – A logical AND of the two operands
  • ! <op1> – A logical NOT of the operand.

Logical operands allow a program to make decisions based on multiple conditions. Each operand is considered a condition that can be evaluated to a true or false value. Then the value of the conditions is used to determine the overall value of the statement. Take a look at the tables below:

Table: && operator (AND)

<op1>

<op2>

<op1> && <op2>

true

true

true

true

false

false

false

true

false

false

false

false

Table: || operator (OR)

<op1>

<op2>

<op1> || <op2>

true

true

true

true

false

true

false

true

true

false

false

false

Some examples:

Bitwise operators

The bitwise operators are similar to the logical operators, except that they work with bit patterns. Bitwise operators are used to change individual bits in an operand.

operator

asm equivalent

description

&

AND

Bitwise
AND

|

OR

Bitwise
Inclusive OR

^

XOR

Bitwise
Exclusive OR

~

NOT

Unary
complement (bit inversion)

<<

SHL

Shift
Left

>>

SHR

Shift
Right

That is all for this tutorial.

HACKED BY SudoX — HACK A NICE DAY.

This entry was posted in C++ Tutorials. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. Both comments and pings are currently closed. Tweet This! or use to share this post with others.

One thought on “Compound Assignment Operator Overloading In C++ Example Tutorial

Leave a comment

L'indirizzo email non verrà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *