1873Depression of 1873 hitsSupreme Court hears Slaughterhouse Cases
1874Democrats become majority party in House of Representatives
1875Civil Rights Act of 1875 passed
1876Samuel J. Tilden and Rutherford B. Hayes both claim victory in presidential election
1877Congress passes Electoral Count ActHayes becomes presidentHayes removes remaining troops from the South to end Reconstruction
Rutherford B. Hayes - Ohio governor chosen to run against Democrat Samuel J. Tilden in the presidential election of 1876; received fewer popular and electoral votes than Tilden but became president after Compromise of 1877
Samuel J. Tilden - Famous New York prosecutor; ran for president on Democratic ticket against Rutherford B. Hayes in election of 1876; fell one electoral vote shy of becoming president
Waning Interest in Reconstruction
As the Depression of 1873 wore on into the mid-1870s, northern voters became decreasingly interested in southern Reconstruction. With unemployment high and hard currency scarce, northerners were more concerned with their own financial well-being than in securing rights for freedmen, punishing the Ku Klux Klan, or readmitting secessionist states. After Democrats capitalized on these depression conditions and took control of the House of Representatives in 1874, Reconstruction efforts stalled.
The Civil Rights Act of 1875
The Radical Republicans’ last successful piece of legislation in Congress was the Civil Rights Act of 1875. The bill aimed to eliminate social discrimination and forbade discrimination in all public places, such as theaters, hotels, and restaurants. The bill stated that blacks should be treated as equals under the law and that they could sue violators of the law in federal court.
Unfortunately, the act proved ineffective, as Democrats in the House made sure the bill was unenforceable. The act stated that blacks had to file claims to defend their own rights; the federal government could not do it for them. Many blacks were still poor and worked hard to make a living, and House Democrats knew that lawsuits would require money and considerable effort.
Democrats Take the South
Meanwhile, Democrats were steadily regaining control of the South, as the already-weak Republican presence in region only became weaker as northerners lost interest in Reconstruction. The Depression of 1873, along with continued pressure from the Ku Klux Klan, drove most white Unionists, carpetbaggers, and scalawags out of the South by the mid-1870s, leaving blacks alone to fight for radical legislation. Democrats regained their seats in state legislatures, beginning with majorities in Virginia and Tennessee in 1869 and moving steadily onward to other states. Many Democrats used violence to secure power, and several Republicans were murdered in Mississippi in the 1875 elections. Blacks continued to be terrorized and intimidated into not voting. By 1877, Democrats had majorities in every southern state.
The Slaughterhouse Cases
The shift of political power in the South was only one cause of the end of Radical Reconstruction. The other key factor was a series of sweeping Supreme Court rulings in the 1870s and 1880s that weakened radical policy in the years before. The first of these were the 1873Slaughterhouse Cases, so named because they involved a suit against a New Orleans slaughterhouse. In these cases, the conservative Supreme Court ruled that the Fourteenth Amendment protected U.S. citizens from rights infringements only on a federal level, not on a state level.
United States v. Cruikshank
Moreover, in 1876, the Supreme Court ruled in United States v. Cruikshank that only states, not the federal government, could prosecute individuals under the Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871. As a result, countless Klan crimes went unpunished by southern state governments, who tacitly condoned the violence.
Background to the Compromise of 1877 for kids - Anarchy in the South
The process of Reconstruction was falling apart in the South towards the end of Grant's presidency, especially in Louisiana, Arkansas, and South Carolina. The political situation in Louisiana and Arkansas had led to the appointment of two sets of governors and legislatures which had led to a small scale civil war. In South Carolina the corrupt and power hungry carpetbaggers had gained control. In other Southern states there were continued outrages on the ex-slaves. Under these conditions Grant believed it was necessary to keep Federal soldiers in the South - federal troops still remained in Louisiana, South Carolina, and Florida. Public opinion in the North was turning against the employment of soldiers, people wanted the end of reconstruction and military intervention in the South. They wanted to get back to making money. It was under these circumstances that the election of 1876 was held.
Background to the Compromise of 1877 for kids - The Presidential Election of 1876
The Republican candidate was Rutherford B. Hayes of Ohio. His Democratic opponent was Samuel J. Tilden of New York. The electoral returns were fraught with accusations and arguments. There appeared to be two sets of returns from each of three Southern states (Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina) and the vote of Oregon was also doubtful. The disputed results prevented either of the candidates from securing a majority of electoral votes. The Senate was Republican, and the House of Representative was Democratic. The two houses could not agree as to how the electoral returns should be counted so they referred the whole issue to an electoral commission.
The Compromise of 1877 for kids - The Electoral Commission
The electoral commission was made up of five Senators, five Representatives, and five justices of the Supreme Court. Eight of the commissioners were Republicans and seven commissioners were Democrats. The electoral commission would eventually decide by eight to seven votes that Hayes was elected and that he would be inaugurated as President on March 4, 1877. But first the terms in the Compromise of 1877 had to be agreed
Compromise of 1877 for kids - Democratic Leaders accept the Republican Hayes
The Compromise of 1877 was secretly hammered out in the months following the Presidential election of 1876, but before the inauguration in March 1877. Republican and Democratic leaders reached a compromise to resolve the election issue and outstanding matters relating to reconstruction. Democratic leaders accepted Rutherford B. Hayes’s election as president in exchange for Republican promises to withdraw federal troops from the South and other terms and guarantees in the Compromise of 1877.
Compromise of 1877, the End of Reconstruction: Terms of the Compromise of 1877
The terms of the Compromise of 1877 were as follows:
Terms of the Compromise of 1877
Terms of the Compromise of 1877: To withdraw federal soldiers from their remaining positions in the South (Louisiana, South Carolina, and Florida)
Terms of the Compromise of 1877: The restoration of "Home Rule"
Terms of the Compromise of 1877: To appoint Democrats to patronage positions in the South
Terms of the Compromise of 1877: To appoint a Democrat to the president’s cabinet
Terms of the Compromise of 1877: To pass federal legislation that would encourage industrialization in the South
Terms of the Compromise of 1877
Compromise of 1877 for kids - End of Reconstruction
The info about the Compromise of 1877 - End of Reconstruction provides interesting facts and important information about this important event that occured during the presidency of the 19th President of the United States of America.
Compromise of 1877, the End of Reconstruction: The Aims and Goals of the Compromise of 1877
The goal of the Republicans with Compromise of 1877 was to ensure that their candidate, Rutherford B. Hayes, would become the next president. The aims and goal of the Democrats with the Compromise of 1877 was to ensure that the federal troops that were propping up Republican state governments in Florida, South Carolina, and Louisiana would be removed bringing Reconstruction to a formal end. That Democrats would appoint officials to government positions on the basis of political support and that a Democrat would be appointed to the Republican president's cabinet. The patronage positions were part of the infamous Spoils System that was in rampant use during this period of United States History.
Compromise of 1877, the End of Reconstruction: Significance of the Compromise of 1877
The significance of the Compromise of 1877 was:
Significance of the Compromise of 1877
Significance of the Compromise of 1877: Reconstruction was brought to a formal end with the permanent removal of federal troops from the South
Significance of the Compromise of 1877: Southern politicians would play a prominent role in the southern state governments and the federal government
Significance of the Compromise of 1877: The national government could no longer intervene in state affairs
Significance of the Compromise of 1877: The terms of the compromise would allow the disfranchisement of black voters and the imposition of racial segregation
Significance of the Compromise of 1877: Federal funding would be made available for internal improvements in the South and construction of another transcontinental railroad would begin
Significance of the Compromise of 1877: The Compromise of 1877 was seen as the “Great Betrayal" by former slaves
Significance of the Compromise of 1877: The Republicans abandoned their efforts to obtain equal rights for Black Americans in the South
Significance of the Compromise of 1877
Compromise of 1877, the End of Reconstruction: The Withdrawal of the Soldiers from the South
The Withdrawal of the federal Soldiers from the South followed the Compromise of 1877. President Rutherford Hayes recalled the troops, and all the Southern states at once passed into the control of the Democrats. Hayes's withdrawal of troops from the South marked the end of Reconstruction. Hayes continued his presidency by overseeing the appropriation of federal funds for internal improvements in the South.
Compromise of 1877 - End of Reconstruction for kids - President Rutherford Hayes Video
The article on the Compromise of 1877 - End of Reconstruction provides detailed facts and a summary of one of the important events during his presidential term in office. The following Rutherford Hayes video will give you additional important facts and dates about the political events experienced by the 19th American President whose presidency spanned from March 4, 1877 to March 4, 1881.
Compromise of 1877 - End of Reconstruction
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● Rutherford Hayes Presidency from March 4, 1877 to March 4, 1881
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