• Home   /  
  • Archive by category "1"

Cullen Agnew Wilcox+Essay Questions

Presentation on theme: "Criminological Theory: Past to Present"— Presentation transcript:

1 Criminological Theory: Past to Present
Essential Readings5th EditionFrancis T. Cullen, Robert Agnew, andPamela Wilcox

2 PART I. The Origins of Modern Criminology
In the past, criminological theory was dominated by demonic perspectivesCrime was the result of supernatural forces“The devil made me do it”Led to harsh sanctions for wrong-doersBurn alive, exorcisms, purge body of evil spirits

3 The Emergence of Classical Theory
Demonic perspectives dominated until 1700sAge of EnlightenmentChallenged by the “classical” criminologistsMost prominent classical criminologist was Cesare BeccariaAn Essay on Crimes and Punishments

4 Beccaria: An Essay on Crimes and Punishments
Presents the first modern scientific theory of crimePublished in 1764Foundation for classicaltheoryDraws heavily on ThomasHobbes

5 Classical TheoryDeveloped in reaction to a harsh and corrupt legal system in the 1700sJudges interpreted laws to suit their personal interests, gave arbitrary punishments, engaged in briberyHarsh sentences were often imposedClassical theorists saw the system as unjust and ineffective and formulated proposals for its reformJudges should not interpret laws as they are not legislators

6 Classical Theory vs. Demonic Perspectives
Classical CriminologyCrime caused by natural forcesCan observe and testPrevent crime with swift, severe, and certain punishmentsDemonic PerspectiveCrime caused by supernatural forcesCannot observe or testSolve crime through ridding individual of evil spirits

7 Essential Ideas of Classical Theory
Individuals:Are rational beingsPursue their own interestsOften leads people to harm one anotherAttempt to maximize their pleasure and minimize their painEnter into social contractsAgree to give up some freedom to the state to prevent harm from occurringState enforces the social contract through creating and establishing laws of the area

8 Essential Ideas of Classical Theory
To control crime:Must deter people from criminal behavior (prevent others from committing crime by punishing wrongdoers publicly)In order to be deterred, the pain associated with punishment must outweigh the pleasure associated with crimeCost-benefit ratioTo be effective, punishments must be:Known (universally read and understood)Swift (more immediate, creates an associationbetween crime and punishment)Severe (but proportionate to crime committed)Certain (most important element)

9 Essential Ideas of Classical Theory
Why some individuals commit crimes while others do not is due to the cost–benefit ratioIndividuals evaluate the potential pains of punishment and pleasures of crime differently from other individuals

10 Impact of Classical Theory
Became the basis for legal systems in the United States, France, and other countriesThree lasting ideas based in classical criminology:Laws should be applied to everyone equally(blind justice)Proper to just punish offendersControl crime by increasing certainty and severityof punishments

11 Three Problems with Classical Theory
Assumes everyone is motivated to engage in crime through pursuit of self-interestsModern-day theories often argue that individuals and groups vary in their motivationAssumes people are rational and engage in crime to minimize pain and maximize pleasureToday we treat different groups of offenders differently (seen as less rational—juveniles, insane)Other factors besides the swiftness, severity, and certainty of punishment influence whether someone does or does not engage in crime

12 Movement From Classical Theory to the Positivist School
Classical criminology dominated from late 1700s to late 1800sAttacked by the positivist schoolCrime rates were still increasing despite changes in the legal system based on classical thoughtView of rationality challenged by biological sciences, especially Darwin’s work

13 The Influence of Cesare Lombroso
Challenged the view that criminals were rational, self-interested individualsArgued that criminals were NOT normal and were biologically different from noncriminalsCriminals were “genetic throwbacks” or primitivepeople in the midst of modern societyDescribed criminals as “atavistic”The primitive/savage state of the individual compels them to commit crime

14 Lombroso’s Experiments
Worked as a physician in the army and the Asylum in PaviaFirst idea came from examining skull of VilellaConducted extensive examinations with criminals and noncriminalsIn 1876, developed a list of traits distinguishing between criminals and noncriminals

15 Lombroso: The Criminal Man
“Born criminals” —Make up 1/3 of all criminalsResembled a stereotypical “caveman”Have qualities of our ancestorsTraits include:Large jawLarge cheekbonesStrong caninesScanty beardSwollen/protruding lipsArm span greater than heightExcessive wrinklingPrehensile footCheek pouchesFlattened noseHooked nose

16 Lombroso’s Later Research
Became convinced that environmental factors also played a role in crimeThere are several types of criminals (not just the “born criminal”)Criminoloid—minor offendersOccasional offendersHabitual offenders

17 Evidence for Lombroso’s Theory
His theory was too simplisticPointed to gross biological featuresArgued biology often leads directly to crimeThese types of biological theorieseventually abandoned/discredited:Rigorously evaluated and found littlesupportMajor policy implications of these theoriesEugenics, breeding, and sterilization

18 The Positivist School of Criminology
Lombroso’s work helped lay the foundation for the “positivist school” of criminologyArgues crime is due to forces beyond the individual’s controlBiological, psychological, or social forcesReliance on the “scientific method”Now dominates the field

19 Scientific MethodThe theories we develop must be tested against our observations of the worldViews the world in a systematic mannerHYPOTHESISFINDINGS EXPERIMENTSDATA (RESULTS)

20 Recent Resurgence of Biological Theories
In recent years, biological theories have gained prominence in the fieldHowever, they argue biology does NOT directly lead to crimeRather, it increases the likelihood that individuals develop traits conducive to crimeRecognizes that biology is influenced by the social environment

21 SummaryCriminological thought was first dominated by demonic approaches focused on ridding the individual of evil spiritsClassical theories then focused on the rational human being and altering punishments to reduce crimeFinally, the positivist school focused on the biological, sociological, and psychological differences among criminals and noncriminals using the scientific method

Editorial Reviews

Review


"Criminological Theory is a well-crafted collection of the seminal pieces of criminological theory. It brings together the major theoretical scholars and researchers to historically and conceptually introduce young, new scholars to the field. This is a book that every criminologist should have on his or her bookshelf."--Jessica M. Grosholz, University of South Florida Sarasota-Manatee


"Criminological Theory: Past to Present is a unique criminological theory reader: it tells the fascinating history of criminological theory in the broader context of the field. The text provides readers with fundamental information about each perspective coupled with original writings from the criminologists themselves. The writing style is captivating; the authors write about theory as if it were a story."--Kristin Swartz, University of Louisville
"Criminological Theory is an excellent overview of the major historical and contemporary contributors and theories in the field of criminology."--Addrain Conyers, Marist College

Read more

About the Author


Francis T. Cullen is Distinguished Research Professor in the School of Criminal Justice at the University of Cincinnati.

Robert Agnew is Samuel Candler Dobbs Professor of Sociology Emory University.

Pamela Wilcox is Professor in the School of Criminal Justice at the University of Cincinnati.

Read more

NO_CONTENT_IN_FEATURE

Editorial Reviews

Review


"Criminological Theory is a well-crafted collection of the seminal pieces of criminological theory. It brings together the major theoretical scholars and researchers to historically and conceptually introduce young, new scholars to the field. This is a book that every criminologist should have on his or her bookshelf."--Jessica M. Grosholz, University of South Florida Sarasota-Manatee


"Criminological Theory: Past to Present is a unique criminological theory reader: it tells the fascinating history of criminological theory in the broader context of the field. The text provides readers with fundamental information about each perspective coupled with original writings from the criminologists themselves. The writing style is captivating; the authors write about theory as if it were a story."--Kristin Swartz, University of Louisville
"Criminological Theory is an excellent overview of the major historical and contemporary contributors and theories in the field of criminology."--Addrain Conyers, Marist College

Read more

About the Author


Francis T. Cullen is Distinguished Research Professor in the School of Criminal Justice at the University of Cincinnati.

Robert Agnew is Samuel Candler Dobbs Professor of Sociology Emory University.

Pamela Wilcox is Professor in the School of Criminal Justice at the University of Cincinnati.

Read more

NO_CONTENT_IN_FEATURE

NO_CONTENT_IN_FEATURE

Editorial Reviews

Review


"Criminological Theory is a well-crafted collection of the seminal pieces of criminological theory. It brings together the major theoretical scholars and researchers to historically and conceptually introduce young, new scholars to the field. This is a book that every criminologist should have on his or her bookshelf."--Jessica M. Grosholz, University of South Florida Sarasota-Manatee


"Criminological Theory: Past to Present is a unique criminological theory reader: it tells the fascinating history of criminological theory in the broader context of the field. The text provides readers with fundamental information about each perspective coupled with original writings from the criminologists themselves. The writing style is captivating; the authors write about theory as if it were a story."--Kristin Swartz, University of Louisville
"Criminological Theory is an excellent overview of the major historical and contemporary contributors and theories in the field of criminology."--Addrain Conyers, Marist College

Read more

About the Author


Francis T. Cullen is Distinguished Research Professor in the School of Criminal Justice at the University of Cincinnati.

Robert Agnew is Samuel Candler Dobbs Professor of Sociology Emory University.

Pamela Wilcox is Professor in the School of Criminal Justice at the University of Cincinnati.

Read more

NO_CONTENT_IN_FEATURE

One thought on “Cullen Agnew Wilcox+Essay Questions

Leave a comment

L'indirizzo email non verrà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *